BASIC LANGUAGE COURSE IN BENGALI
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© B J Burford 1998-2002

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Pronounciation Guidance
Brief Grammar Course 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercises 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

NOTES
1. Note that throughout this course ‘YOU’ means the plural of ‘you’.
2. Note that English pronouns underlined are equivalent to the honorific form in Bengali.
3. Bengali letters underlined represent the ‘cerebral’ sound, not the ‘dental’.
4. In Bengali spellings ‘_’ indicates that the adjacent letters get brought together as one syllable.
5. In Bengali spellings ‘-’ indicates that the adjacent letters are in different syllables.


Pronunciation Guidance Using Romanized Method

Sounds can be played by clicking on the hyperlinks in the table. Also the sounds can be all be downloaded. Other helps are provided to help you learn the script. The Romanization method used in this course is consistent with the Romanized Input Method (should you prefer it) offered with Jaspell's Jaldi Multilingual Word Processor Software Package.

VOWELS
INDEPENDENT
OR INITIAL

ROMANIZED
PHONETIC
SOUNDS
LIKE ...
AS IN THE ENGLISH WORD SYLLABLE IF JOINED ONTO ‘k’
(no vowel) (no sound) (no sound after ‘k’ in ‘black’) k`
a short "o" "off" (inherent a) ka
aa long "a" "far" kaa
a flat "a" "apple" ka
i short "i" "fill" ki
ii long "i" "feel" kii
u short "u" "pull" ku
uu long "oo" "pool" kuu
rri short "ri" "triple" krri
e short "e" "egg" ke
ee long "oi" "boil" kee ("koi")
o short "o" "on" ko
oo long "o" "owner", "now" koo ("kau/kow")
nasal "ng" "singer" kan° ("kang")
hha abrupt "h" "Judah" kahh
^ nasal faintly as in French "non" k^a ("kan")

 

CONSONANTS

CLASS

ROMANIZED
PHONETIC

SOUNDS LIKE

IN THE ENGLISH WORD
Guttural
-in the throat
k k "keen"
kh kh "rockhead"
g g "get"
gh gh "slagheap"
n "donkey"
Palatal
- on the palate
c c "chair"
ch tchh "matchhead"
j j "enjoy"
jh dgeh "hedgehog"
n "pinch"
Cerebral
or Retroflexive
- with the tongue bent back on the roof of the mouth
t t "alter"
th th "bolthole"
d d "old"
r r "millrun"
dh dh "goldhammer"
rh rrh "myrrh lump"
n or n³ n "inlaid"
Dental
- on the teeth
t t "ant"
th th "nuthatch"
d d "beds"
dh dh "redheads"
n n "sender"
Labial
- on the lips
p p "peace"
ph ph "uphold"
b
(or v, w)
b
(v, w)
"bob"
("liftvan", "swim")
bh bh "nibholder"
m m "me"
Forward
Semi-Vowels
y j "flapjack"
y y "yes"
r r "ran"
l l "lap"
Sibilants sh sh "ship"
s sh "fleshly"
s s
s
"ensure"
"strap"
Guttural Semi-Vowel h h "hog"

Introduction

This basic oral course will cover the main features of the Bengali language. If you understand sentence structure you should quickly be able to achieve a simplified but effective system of communication. A fully detailed course can be studied later in harmony with this basic beginning.

This course addresses the elements of sentences in the following way:-

1. Doers (nouns and pronouns)
2. Process done (verb) —; a simple past, present and future tense
3. Quality describing doers and objects (adjectives, etc.)
4. Manner describing process done (adverb)
5. Object forms of nouns and pronouns according to ‘case’
6. Connectives linking to another clause
7. Conditional sentences
8. Interrogatives, correlatives and relatives
9. Other forms of expression common or without equivalent
10. Add other features

SOME BENGALI SENTENCE STRUCTURES ON WHICH THIS ANALYSIS IS BASED:-

  3. 1. 3. 5. 4. 2. 6.
A

 

DOER       PROCESS  
B Quality DOER       PROCESS  
C (Quality) DOER     Manner PROCESS  
D (Quality) DOER   OBJECT (Manner) PROCESS  
E (Quality) DOER Quality OBJECT (Manner) PROCESS  
F (Quality) DOER (Quality) OBJECT (Manner) PROCESS LINK

COMPARE THESE ENGLISH SENTENCE STRUCTURES:-

  3. 1. 3. 5. 4. 2. 6.
A

 

PEOPLE       SING  
B Happy PEOPLE       SING  
C (Happy) PEOPLE     joyfully SING  
D (Happy) PEOPLE   SONGS (joyfully) SING  
E (Happy) PEOPLE sweet SONGS (joyfully) SING  
F (Happy) PEOPLE (sweet) SONGS (joyfully) SING and ...

1. Doers (nouns and pronouns)   [Go to Top]

A few nouns are listed below. You can learn more from the attached vocabularies or lists of frequently used words, and dictionaries. Pronouns are listed here.

The listed form is for the doer (subject, nominative case) in the clause.

e.g. He said to me that I should tell him.

The form of the nouns and pronouns listed here may be modified in various ways if they occur as the object. See the later consideration of “Forms of Nouns and Pronouns As Objects According to ‘Case’”.

If the sentence expresses ‘A’ is ‘B’, both A and B are in the unmodified subject form. The doing word (verb) ‘to be’ can be omitted. If A is plural, B can be singular.

Today is Sunday.

aaj-ke rabi-baar.

We are parents.

aamaraa pitaamaataa.

God is love.

iishvar prem.

They are friends.

taaraa bandhu.

Singular

Plural

Common

Common

I

aami

we

aamaraa

you

tumi

you

tomaraa

he

se

they

taaraa

she

se

they

taaraa

it

taa

they

taaraa

Honorific

Honorific

you

aapani

you

aapanaaraa

he

tini

they

t^aaraa

Do Exercises 1.1, 1.2, 1.3


Some Useful Words to Learn — Nouns and Pronouns: These can be used for ‘Doers’ and ‘Objects’  [Go to Top]

NOTE: The words shown in bold style are those used in this short course. The others can be used as you widen your conversations.

accurate knowledge tatva jnaan (“gyaan”)    animal pashu    answer uttar    anyone keha; keu    belief bishvaas    benefit laabh; phaa'idaa    Bengali language baan°laa    Bengali person baan¹gaalii    Bible baaibel    bird paakhi; paksi    book bai    brother bhaai   chapter adhyaay     creation srristi    crime aparaadh    daughter, girl meye    day din    Sunday ravi-vaar    Monday    som-baar    Tuesday man¹gal-baar    Wednesday    budh-baar    Thursday brrihaspatibaar    Friday shukrabaar    Saturday shanibaar    destruction dhvan°sa    disturbance ashaanti    -doer -kaarii    earth prrithibii    encouragement ut`saaha    English language in°rejii    English person in°rej    -er -kaarii    faith bishvaas    family paribaar    father pitaa, baabaa    fish maach    flesh, meat maan°sa    food khaadya, khaabaar    freedom mukti    friend bandhu    fruit phal    future bhavisyat`    God (gen'l Bengali) iishvar    God (from Urdu) khodaa    happiness    sukh, aananda    hatred ghrrinaa    help saahaayya    hope aashaa    house baarii, ghar, grriha    husband swaamii    Jehovah yihobaa    Jesus yiishu / iisaa    kindness dayaa    kingdom raajya    Kingdom Hall kin°dam hal    lack, shortage abhaab    last days shes kaal    leader netaa    life jiiban    love prem; bhaalabaasaa    magazine patrikaa    man maanus    meeting sabhaa    mental spirit man    message san°vaad    mother maataa, maa    name naam    parents pitaamaataa    peace shaanti    person, people lok    picture chabi    plural -s persons -eraa    plural -s non-persons -guli    problem samasyaa    proof, evidence pramaan    purpose uddeshya    question prashna    religion dharma    rescue; survival raksaa    return visit punahha saaksaat`    salvation paritraan    Satan shayataan    side of an issue paksa    sister bon    situation paristhiti    someone/anyone keha; keu    son, boy chele    study adhyayan    terroriser santraas-kaarii    terrorism santraas    that (thing) ee    these (things) e-guli    thing, article jinis    thing said; word kathaa    this (thing) e    those (things) ee-guli    thought man / mat    time (measure) samay    time (period, era) kaal    today aaj-ke    tomorrow aagaamii kaal    tree gaach; brriksa    truth satya    verbal: e.g. seeing,...dekh-te, kar-te    verbal: e.g. to see, ...dekh_aa, kar_aa,...    verse pad    violence dooraatmya, hin°saa    war yuddha    water paani, jal    week saptaa    what yaa    what? kii?    what ones? kii kii?    who ye    who? ke?    WHO yaaraa    WHO? kaaraa?    wife strii    witness saaksii    word baakya; kathaa    work kaaj, karma    worker karma-kaarii    world jagat`, duniyaa    year (date) saal    year (period) bat`sar    yesterday gata kaal


Do Exercises 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9


2. Process Done (verb) – Simple Past, Present and Future Tense   [Go to Top]

THE BASIC PATTERN FOR ENDINGS OF ALL VERBS

Person

Past

Present

Future

Common

I, we

-laam

_i

-bo

you, YOU

-le

_o

-be

he, she, it they

-la

_e or _y

-be

Honorific

you, YOU

-len

_en

-ben

he, she, they

PATTERN 1:- kar_aa — to do, to make

Person

Past

Present

Future

Common

I, we

kar-laam

kar_i

kar-bo

you, YOU

kar-le

kar_o

kar-be

he, she, it they

kar-la

kar_e

kar-be

Honorific

you, YOU

kar-len

kar_en

kar-ben

he, she, they

Do Exercise 2.1

PATTERN 2:- la-oyaa — to lead, take

Person

Past

Present

Future

Common

I, we

lai-laam

la-i

la-bo

you, YOU

lai-le

la-o

la-be

he, she, it they

lai-la

la-y

la-be

Honorific

you, YOU

lai-len

la-n

la-ben

he, she, they

Exceptions:-

ha-oyaa — to be: (definite state)

chi-laam

aach-i;

ha-bo

ha-oyaa — to be: (prove or come to be

ha-laam

ha-i

ha-bo

ne-oyaa — to take

ni-laam

ne- i

ni-bo

de-oyaa — to give

di-laam

de-i

di-bo

Do Exercises 2.4, 2.5

PATTERN 3:- khaa-oyaa — to eat

Person

Past

Present

Future

Common

I, we

khe-laam

khaa-i

khaa-bo

you, YOU

khe-le

khaa-o

khaa-be

he, she, it they

khe-la

khaa-y

khaa-be

Honorific

you, YOU

khe-len

khaa-n

khaa-ben

he, she, they

Exceptions:-
yaa-oyaa — to go:- ge-laam (not yelaam);     yaa-i;     yaa-bo
caa-oyaa — to want:-     caa-i-laam;             caa-i;     caa-i-bo
gaa-oyaa — to sing:-       gaa-i-laam;             gaa-i;     gaa-bo

PATTERN 4:- ghum_aa-no — to sleep

Person

Past

Present

Future

Common

I, we

ghumaa-laam

ghumaa-i

ghumaa-bo

you, YOU

ghumaa-le

ghumaa-o

ghumaa-be

he, she, it they

ghumaa-la

ghumaa-y

ghumaa-be

Honorific

you, YOU

ghumaa-len

ghumaa-n

ghumaa-ben

he, she, they

Negative Form of Verbs  [Go to Top]

Person

Past

Present

Future

I, we

kar_i ni

kar_i naa

kar-bo naa

you, YOU

kar_o ni

kar_o naa

kar-be naa

he, she, it they

kar_e ni

kar_e naa

kar-be naa

you, YOU

kar_en ni

kar_en naa

kar-ben naa

he, she, they

The past negative uses the present form with ‘ni’ added. ‘It does not exist’ = ‘nei’.

Examples:-

I do not understand. aami bujhi naa.
I did not understand.
aami bujhi ni.

I have a big book. aamaar bara bai aache.
I do not have a big book.
aamaar bara bai nei.

Like kar_aa

to do, make

kar_aa to be able to (can) paar_aa

to speak

bal_aa to die mar_aa
to read, fall par_aa to hit, kill maar_aa
to understand bujh_aa to know jaan_aa
to bring aan_aa to see dekh_aa
to come aas_aa to remain thaak_aa

Do Exercises 2.2, 2.3

Like la-oyaa [pron.: “la-waa”]
to lead, bring la-oyaa
to be, prove to be ha-oyaa
[‘not to be’ (notional)] [‘na-oyaa’]

Do Exercise 2.4

Like khaa-oyaa [pron.: “khaa-waa”]
to want caa-oyaa to go yaaoyaa
to get paa-oyaa to sing gaaoyaa

Do Exercise 2.6

Like ghum_aa-no
to sleep ghum_aa-no to cause to do kar_aa-no
to run door_aa-no to cause to see (show) dekh_aa-no
to stand d^aar_aa-no

Do Exercise 2.7

Compound Verbs (a noun or adjective with an auxilliary verb like kar_aa)

to think mane kar_aa to destroy dhvan°sa kar_aa
to believe bishvaas kar_aa to hate ghrrinaa kar_aa
to create srristi kar_aa to love prem kar_aa
to encourage ut`saahita kar_aa to delight aanandita kar_aa
to forget bhule yaaoyaa


Note: The verb is placed last in the sentence (with ‘naa’ or ‘ni’, if negative.)

e.g. We sleep. aamaraa ghumaa-i.
They stood. taaraa d^aaraa-lo.
I thought. aami mane kar-laam.
He created. tini srristi kar-len.
You encourage. aapani ut`saahita kar_en.
They don't believe. taaraa bishvaas kar_e naa.
We could not. aamaraa paari ni.
Peace doesn't exist. shaanti nei.

Do Exercise 2.8, etc.


3. Quality Describing Doers and Objects (Adjectives, etc.)  [Go to Top]

These words can be used as they are with no adjustment for gender or number.

all sakal, sab, samasta    any kono      bad manda, khaaraap     big bara     coming, next aagaamii     false bhul     few; a little alpa     forever, unending ananta     -full -puurna     good bhaala     happy sukhii, aanandita     his, her (honorific) t^aar     his, her, its taar     holy pavitra     important gurutvapuurna     impossible asambhab     less kam     more beshi; aar-o     most sab ceye     much anek     my aamaar     near (at hand) (san-)nikat    necessary dar-kaar, prayojaniiya     other apar, anya     our aamaader     past, previous gata     peaceful shaantipuurna     possible sambhab     righteous dhaarmik     -'s singular possessive -er     -s' pl. (personal) -der     -s' pl. (non-personal) -gulir     small chotta, chota     some kicchu     that ee     their taader     their t^aader     this e     true satya     unhappy,     sad, sorry duhhakhita     unrighteous adhaarmik     unwell; sick; ill asustha     violent hin°sra     well sustha; bhaala     who's? kaar?     WHO's kaader?     whose yaar     WHOSE yaader     your tomaar     your (honorific) aapanaar     YOUR tomaader     YOUR aapanaader

Examples:-

happy life — sukhii jiiban
any peace
— kono shaanti
peaceful home
— shaanti-puurna ghar
violent attitude
— hin°sra manobhaab

Numbers To Indicate the Quantity of Things

one ek eight aat
two dui nine nay
three tin ten dash
four caar eleven egaara
five p^aac twelve baara
six chay twenty biish
seven saat hundred sha`

e.g. two good friends

dui bhaala bandhu


Do Exercises 3.xx


4. Manner  (Adverb) Describing The Process Done   [Go to Top]

very khub -ly -bhaabe
again aabaar - indeed; -particularly -i
here e-khaane how? keman?; kii-bhaabe?
there o-khaane this way e-man; e-bhaabe
where? kon`-khaane? when? kakhan? kabe?
kothaay? then takhan; tabe
why? kena? now e-khan
why kaaran; yena not (present or future) naa
for this reason e-kaarane not (past) ni
also, as well, too -o
e.g. very very khub-i e.g. in this (very) way e bhaabe-i
e.g. I alone aami-i e.g. Why did you go? kena gelen?
e.g. leaders also netaaraa-o e.g. YOU too tomaraa-o

Do Exercises 4.xx


5. Object Forms Of Nouns and Pronouns According To ‘Case’  [Go to Top]

A noun or pronoun representing a thing that is the object in a clause is usually a modified form of the word that would be used if it were the doer (subject).

Personal Object

Singular

Plural

man

maanus m...-raa

affecting the man

m... -ke

m...-der  (-ke)

of the man

m... -er

m...-der

to the man

m... -ke

m...-der  (-ke)

through the man

m... -er dvaaraa

m...-der  dvaaraa

by way of the man

m... -er diye

m...-der  diye

from the man

m... (-er kaac) theke

m...-der  (kaac) theke

in/on/at the man

m... -e (or -te)

m...-der  madhye (or -te)

Oh the man!

he maanus !

he maanuseraa !

Non-Personal Object

Singular

Plural

book

bai b...-guli

affecting the book

b... (-ke)

b...-guli (-ke)

of the book

b... -(e)r

b...-guli -r

to the book

b... (-ke)

b...-guli (-ke)

through the book

b... dvaaraa

b...-guli dvaaraa

by way of the book

b... -er diye

b...-guli diye

from the book

b... theke

b...-guli theke

in/on/at the book

b... -te (or -e)

b...-guli -r madhye (or -te)

Oh the book!

he bai !

he baiguli !

Similar to ‘from’, than can be ‘theke’, ‘hate’; ‘haite’. More commonly it is ‘ceye’.
best (“good than all”) sab ceye bhaala
The father is bigger than I            pitaa aamaa ceye bara
Love is better than hatred.           prem ghrrinaa ceye bhaala.
It is better to give than to take     paaoyaa ceye deoyaa bhaala
for ... ...-er janya           against ... ...-er viruddhe
with ... ...-er saathe or -er san¹ge

Do Exercises 5.xx


6. Connectives  [Go to Top]

and  eban° / aar    as a result phalata    because  kenanaa; kaaran    but   kintu
for this reason e-kaarane    if yadi    in order that; so that yena    in that case, then tabe, taahale    lest; so that not paache    so (therefore) taai    that (the fact that)  ye    whether? ki?    or athabaa; baa; kin°baa

Examples:-
He came and we went.
se aas-lo eban° aamaraa ge-laam. You came but they did not go. tumi aas-le kintu taaraa yaay ni. Are you well? aapani ki sustha? They say that God does not exist. taaraa bale ye iishvar nan. We do it so that you will get benefit. aamaraa taa kari yena tumi laabh paabe. I will write lest I forget. aami likh-bo paache bhule yaa-i.

Do Exercises 6.xx


7. Conditional Sentences   [Go to Top]

To modify a minor clause (that states a condition) add a word like ‘if’:- ‘yadi’

To modify a main clause (that states the main process) that is linked to a condition add a word like ‘then’: ‘tabe’ or ‘that being the case’: ‘taahale’.

The order of the main and minor clauses can be swapped with minor adjustments:-

e.g. I will go, {if you come too}.
e.g. {If you come,} then I will go.

Qualified Statement

Condition

I will go,

if you come.

aami yaa-bo

yadi aapani aas-ben

Say,

if you know.

balo

yadi jaano.

Listen,

if you can.

shuno

yadi paaro

Condition

Qualified Statement

If you come,

then I will go.

yadi aapani aas-ben

tabe aami yaa-bo.

If you know,

then say

yadi jaano

tabe balo.

If you can,

listen

yadi paar-o

shuno

Bengali uses conditional participles: to make these just add ‘-le’ to the verb's stem.

For example, the present participle of ‘aas_aa’ is ‘aas-le’:-
            In the case of you coming you will hear.
                                           aas-le tumi shun-be

Do Exercises 7.xx


8. Interrogatives, Correlatives and Relatives   [Go to Top]

Interrogatives

what?

kii

who? WHO?

ke? kaaraa?

why?

kena?

when?

kakhan? kabe?

where?

kothaay? kon-khaane?

how?

keman? kii-bhaabe?

whether?

ki?

which?

kon`?


The words listed can be used without adjusting their spelling for gender or number.

Correlatives and Relatives

xxx

The xxx which

such xxx

[e.g.]

[That (the thing) which it says

such (thing) is true.]

thing

yaa

taa / se-i

things

ye ye

taaraa / se-guli

person

ye

se

persons

yaaraa

taaraa

reason

ye kaarane

se kaarane

reason

yena

se-janya

time

yakhan

takhan

time

yabe

tabe

place

yekhaane

sekhaane

place

ye-sthaane; yothaay

se-sthaane; tothaay

manner

yeman

teman

manner

ye-bhaabe

se-bhaabe

Do Exercises 8.xx


9. Other Forms of Expression Common or Without Equivalent  [Go to Top]

The main information in the original language has to be identified, and an acceptable alternative way has to be found of communicating enough of this in a way that is comfortable in the new language.

English

Bengali

greeting (from Arabic)

aassaalaam-oyaalaaikum

response to greeting (from Arabic)

oyaalaaikum-aassaalaam

greeting (with other backgrounds)

namaskaar

Yes

hy^aa

No

naa

I must listen (‘my listening will be’)

aamaar shun-te habe

I have a book (‘my book exists’)

aamaar bai aache

It was said to me

aamaake taa balaa gela (or hala)

It was said by me

aamaa(r) dvaaraa balaa gela (or hala)

a book that speaks truth

ek satya balaa bai

a

[The indefinite article does not exist.]

a set number of persons

-jan

e.g. 2 friends; 4 daughters

e.g. dui-jan bandhu; caar-jan meye

a set number of non-persons / diminutive

-ti or -taa

e.g. 4 books; 10 wars

e.g. car-ti bai; dash-taa yuddha

the (personal)

se-i

the (non-personal/diminutive)

se-i ... or ...-taa e.g. se-i bai or bai-taa

Do Exercises 9.xx


10. Add More Features   [Go to Top]

It may be beneficial to add other important features of the Bengali language in order facilitate a rapid but sufficiently accurate start to meaningful, fluent communication.

1. The doer word can be omitted from the sentence, if it can be implied from the verb ending theat is used.

Example:-
I am fine
aami bhaala.
I am fine
bhaala aachi.

Do Exercises 10.xx

NOTES
1. Note that throughout this course ‘YOU’ means the plural of ‘you’.
2. Note that English pronouns underlined are equivalent to the honorific form in Bengali.
3. Bengali letters underlined represent the ‘cerebral’ sound, not the ‘dental’.
4. In Bengali spellings ‘_’ indicates that the adjacent letters get brought together as one syllable.
5. In Bengali spellings ‘-’ indicates that the adjacent letters are in different syllables.


EXERCISE 1.1  [Go to Top]

Translate:-

I am English. aami in°rej
se baan¹gaalii
This is violence.
uttar shaanti.
The Bible is truth.
iishvar ke?
Kindness is the answer.
santraas ghrrinaa.

EXERCISE 1.2

Learn words about world conditions.

EXERCISE 1.3

Learn words about family members and other human relationships.

EXERCISE 1.4  [Go to Top]

Ask questions. In these simple sentences, the interrogative like ‘ke’ (‘who’)  is positioned last. Then provide answers.

Q: Who are you? tumi ke?
A:
Q: What is this thing?
A:
Q: What are those things?
A:
Q: What is today?
A:
Q: What is this time period?
A:

EXERCISE 1.5

Make plurals of the singular pronouns. They end in ‘-raa’, but slight changes to the stem are needed for some of these.

aami
tumi
se
taa
aapani
tini

EXERCISE 1.6  [Go to Top]

Make singulars of the plural pronouns.

aamaraa
tomaraa
taaraa
taaraa
aapanaaraa
taaraa
t^aaraa

EXERCISE 1.7  [Go to Top]

Make plurals of these personal nouns by adding ‘-raa’ after a vowel or ‘-eraa’ after a consonant.

saaksii saaksii-raa
bhaai
bandhu
meye
baan¹gaalii
bon bon_eraa
maanus
lok
in°rej

EXERCISE 1.8  [Go to Top]

Make plurals of the singular non-personal nouns by adding ‘-guli’.

prashna prashna-guli
yuddha
chabi
sabhaa
din din-guli
parivaar
jiiban
baaibel
uttar

EXERCISE 1.9

Learn the days of the week.

EXERCISE 2.1  [Go to Top]

I did aami kar-laam
tumi kar-le
he did
we do aamaraa kar-i
she does
aapani kar-en
he will do tini kar_ben
you will do
iishvar kar_ben
The boy will do
ke kar_be?
we will do

EXERCISE 2.2

Learn some of the verbs patterned like ‘kar_aa’

EXERCISE 2.3
  [Go to Top]

I speak aami bal_i
se par-lo
You understand
He will come
aapani aas-len
se par-lo
Peace will come?
taaraa dekh-lo
aamaraa dekh-bo
God knows
We will bring ...
taaraa maare
He died
YOU will see!
aami dekh-laam
kii aas-be?

EXERCISE 2.4   [Go to Top]

We lead/take aamaraa la-i
kii ha-lo?
They led/took
se bandhu nay.
aami la-bo
You are not a boy.
He proves to be
tini bandhu han.
aami iishvar nai
bai baaibel.
God is (exists).
It is not this.
ee nay.
satya aache.
I am aami aachi
kii aache?
you were tumi chile
It will be
I was (there)
aamaraa chilaam

EXERCISE 2.5  [Go to Top]

You give tumi deo
I will give
aami nilaam
He will give.
aami nei
YOU will take.
he takes
I take.
she gives
They give.

EXERCISE 2.6  [Go to Top]

I eat aami khaa-i
you ate
he will eat
aapani khaa-n
se khe-la
se yaa-y
YOU go
tini yaa-ben
he will go
he wanted
aami paa-i
we got
aapani paa-n
you went tumi ge-le
he/she went
I went
aapani ge-len
we go
tumi yaa-o
we will sing aamaraa gaa-bo
they will sing
aami caa-i
he wants
tumi pe-le
they get
tini caa-n

EXERCISE 2.7  [Go to Top]

we slept aamaraa ghumaa-laam
tumi ghumaa-le
he slept
aapani ghumaa-len
I sleep
se ghumaa-y
kaaraa d^aaraa-n?
aamaraa d^aaraa-i
taaraa dooraa-y
they show
ke ghumaa-lo
he stood
tini dekhaa-len

EXERCISE 2.8  [Go to Top]

We believed bishvaas kar-laam
He loved
aapani prem kar_en
I forget
se bhule yaa-y ni
kaaraa prem kar_e?
tini srristi kar-len
She did not create
She encourages
ke ghumaa-lo?
He thought
se dhvan°sa kar_e

EXERCISE 2.9  [Go to Top]

I can do aami kar-te paar_i
tumi kar-te paar_o
He can do.
tumi dekh-te paar_o
aapani dekh-te paar_en
You can know
They can know

EXERCISE 2.10

I want to see. aami dekh-te caa-i
se dekh-te caa-y.
We want to see.
taaraa par-te caa-i-lo.
aamaraa shun-te caa-i-laam.
YOU want to speak.

EXERCISE 2.11  [Go to Top]


To
Present
Affirmative
Past
Affirmative
Past
Negative
 

aami

par_aa par-i par-laam par-i ni
dekh_aa

dekh-laam
kar_aa kar-laam
 

tumi

shun_aa shun_o shun-le shun_o ni
jaan_aa jaan-le
bujh_aa bujh-le
aas_aa aas-le
  se
dekh_aa dekh_e dekh-lo dekh_e ni
shun_aa shun-lo
bujh_aa bujh-lo
yaa-oyaa yaa-y ge-lo yaa-y ni
paa-oyaa pe-lo
gaa-oyaa gaa-i-lo
  aapani, tini
bujh_aa bujh_en bujh-len bujh_en ni
kar_aa kar-len
par_aa par-len
yaa-oyaa yaa-n ge-len yaa-n ni
paa-oyaa pe-len
khaa-oyaa khe-len
ghum_aa-no ghum_aa-n ghum_aa-len ghum_aa-n ni
door_aa-no door_aa-len
dekh_aa-no dekh_aa-len
kar_aa-no kar_aa-len
jaan_aa-no jaan_aa-len

EXERCISE 2.12  [Go to Top]

AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
aami bhaalo aami bhaalo na-i
aami sukhii
aami manda
tumi asustha tumi asustha na-o
tumi khaaraap
tumi bhaalo
taa satya taa satya na-y
taa bhul
taa dhaarmik
aapani khub bara aapani khub bara nan
aapani hin°sra
aapani gurutvapuurna
aamaraa sab ceye chotta
taaraa shaantipuurna
tumi aamaar chele
se tomaar chele
ee-guli aar-o bhaalo
taa sambhab
se khub duhhakhita
tomaraa aanandita

EXERCISE 2.13  [Go to Top]

...... EXISTS ...... EXISTS NOT
bai aache bai nei
prem aache
shaanti nei
aashaa aache
mukti nei

EXERCISE 2.14

To work is necessary kaaj karaa dar-kaar
par_aa darakaar
shun_aa gurutvapuurna
ghrrinaa karaa khaaraap
To come here [is] impossible
satya bal_aa bhaalo
To say is possible
To read is necessary

EXERCISE 3.1  [Go to Top]

Make a list of pairs of words of opposite meanings.

EXERCISE 3.2

possible problem sambhab samasyaa
three good days tin bhaala din
ek manda dharma
false religion
much violence
aagaamii bat`sar
impossible day
punahh saaksaat`
aagaamii adhyayan
previous verse
all big trees
taaraa bara lok
everlasting life
happy women
prem-puurna bhaai
brother and sister bhaaibon
pitaamaataa
baabaamaa
unrighteous leader
seven days
mukti sannikat
big houses chotta chotta phal
There is no hope aashaa nei.
shaanti nei.

There is no food.

EXERCISE 3.3  [Go to Top]

my name aamaar naam
their disturbance
taader ghrrinaa
t^aar prem
taar asustha maa
aamaader bishvaas
some true words
our purpose
His name
taar samasyaa

EXERCISE 3.4  [Go to Top]

God's name iishvar_er naam
jiishu_r san°vaad
son of Abraham
baabaa_r kaaj
iishvar_er bai
tumi kaar chele?
lack of hope
shaanti_r aatmaa
my salvation
aamaar boner prem
wife's brother
shaanti_r abhaab

EXERCISE 3.5

Convert the examples in the previous exercise to plural.

EXERCISE 3.6  [Go to Top]

God's world of peace iishvar_er shaanti_r jagat`
his sister's house
e jagat_er shes
e maanuser strii_r pitaamaataa
message of God's kingdom iishvar_er raajy_er san°vaad
message of real hope
t^aar bhaala aatmaa_r phal
message of peace
work of true love
jihobaa-r saaksii

EXERCISE 3.7

Convert the examples in the previous exercise to plural.

EXERCISE 4.1  [Go to Top]

very good khub bhaala
tini aabaar aas-ben.
He came here.
Why did you come?
kakhan aas-ben?
How do you know?
se e-khan-i aas-be.
ee-i maanus-o e-khaane chila.
The big man also went this way.
tomaraa e-bhaabe shikh-be naa.
strii-raa-o
aashaa-o

EXERCISE 5.1  [Go to Top]

I spoke to the man aami maanus-ke bal-laam.
taaraa ee strii-ke bal-lo.
He saw the woman.
The father of the man maanuser baabaa
bhaai_er ghar
iishvar_er bara uddeshya
You gave to the wrong man. tumi bhul maanus-ke di-le.
aami chotta meye-ke dilaam.
They went to the leader.
I heard through the big man. aami bara maanus dvaaraa shun-laam.
chele pitaa dvaaraa shikh_e.
We get life through parents.

EXERCISE 5.2

Convert the examples in the previous exercise to plural.

EXERCISE 5.3  [Go to Top]

He read (the) book se bai par-lo
tumi bai ni-le.
They learned the message
I know the name of the book aami bai-er naam jaan-i
tumi baariir naam jaan-o
He saw the peace of the people.
The girl gave a name to the animal. meye pashu-ke naam di-lo.
tumi phul-ke paani di-le?
I gave some food to the dog
We heard it through the message. aamaraa san°vaad dvaaraa taa shun-laam. ?
taaraa kaaj dvaaraa shikh_e
I knew through the war.
They went through the hall. taaraa hal diye ge-lo.
taa ghar diye aas-lo.
We will come by way of the meeting.
They get knowledge from the Bible. taaraa baaibel theke jnaan paa-y.
aamaraa yuddha theke ashaanti paa-i.
He gets encouragement from the picture.
In this time (we) see disturbance. e kaale (aamaraa) ashaanti dekh_i.
ee baarii-te aamaar bhaai.
In that religion is much war.
I will walk among the flowers. aami phul-guli-r madhye yaa-bo.
bai-gulir madhye chaabi-guli aache.
He went among the animals.

EXERCISE 5.4

Convert the examples in the previous exercise to plural or to singular.

EXERCISE 5.5  [Go to Top]

most possible sab ceye sambhab
sab ceye khaaraap
most unrighteous
biggest
sab ceye dhaarmik
more peaceful aar-o shaantipuurna
aar-o shaanti
aar-o manda
more happy
aar-o bara
smaller
more well, better
less peaceful kam shaantipuurna
kam dhaarmik
less happy

EXERCISE 6.1  [Go to Top]

I came and he saw me aami aas-laam eban° se aamaa-ke dekh-lo.
se aas-lo kaaran tumi taa caa-i-le.
You want it, so I will come.
maa asustha e-kaarane aas-e ni.
se taa bal-lo paache tumi taa bhule yaa-o
Do you know? tumi ki jaan_o?
tini ki dekh-len?
Will you come?
They do not listen; as a result they do not know.
se aas-be athabaa aami taa kar-bo naa.
I think therefore I am.

EXERCISE 7.1  [Go to Top]

If you come then you will see. yadi aapani aas-ben tabe dekh-ben.
yadi se uttar jaan_e tabe se uttar ba-le.
If you listen then you will be able to learn.

EXERCISE 8.1  [Go to Top]

What do you think? kii mane kar_o?
aapani kii dekh_en?
What do you want?
What's that?

 

Who are you? tumi ke?
ee maanus ke?
Who is this girl?
Who are YOU? tomaraa kaaraa?
ee netaaraa kaaraa?
Who are these boys?
WHO give food?
Who gives war?

 

Why did you come? aapani kena aas-len?
se kena taa bal-lo?
tumi kena aagaamii kaale aas-be?
Why do they do that?
Why did you not see it?

  [Go to Top]

When did he come? se kakhan aas-lo?
yuddha kakhan habe?
When will peace be?

 

Where will they stand? taaraa kothaay d^aar_aa-be?
tumi kothaay aach-o?
aami kothaay ge-laam?
Where is my book?

 

How do you know? kii-bhaabe jaanen?
takhan keman habe?
kii-bhaabe shun-len?
How did you see?
How will you know?
prrithibiite jiiban keman habe?
How will war become ended?

EXERCISE 8.2  [Go to Top]

Do you know the question? aapani ki prashna jaan_en?
iishvar ki dekh_en naa?
Is hatred good?

yuddha ki khaaraap?
maar_aa ki bhaalo?
aapani ki ekhaane thaak-ben?
Will disturbance remain?

EXERCISE 8.3

Make up statements and then add ‘ki?’ to make them into questions. Put the ‘ki’ just in front of the word whose validity is in question.

Example:-
aapani asustha aapani ki asustha?

EXERCISE 8.4  [Go to Top]

Which book is true? kon` bai satya?
kon` kathaa bhul?
Which answer brings peace?
kon` san°vaad shaanti bal_e?
Which leader is righteous?

EXERCISE 8.5

Make up questions using “...will you go?” or “...will you see?”

EXERCISE 8.6    [Go to Top]

That thing which I know such thing I believe
(=What I know I believe.)

aami yaa jaan_i taa bishvaas kar_i
tumi yaa dekh_o taa ki bhaalo?
yaa yuddha aane aami taa caa-i naa.

That which brings peace — that I want.

yaa satya taa shikh_aa dar-kaar

What is bad — that I do.

EXERCISE 8.7  [Go to Top]

The person who listens such a person learns. ye shun_e se shikh_e.
ye shaantipuurna lok se shaanti paa-be
yaaraa jaan_e taaraa bal_e
The ones who are righteous they will stay here.

 

At the time when I come at such time I will give it. yakhan aami aas-bo takhan aami taa di-bo.
yakhan ghrrinaa shes habe takhan shaanti ha-be.
When you want then I'll do it.
He does it when he wants.

EXERCISE 8.8

Where there is true religion there is love. yekhaane satya dharma aach_e sekhaane prem.
aapani yekhaane yaa-ben sekhaane aami yaa-i ni.
Where there are people there food is necessary.
yekhaane bhul dharma sekhaane yuddha.

EXERCISE 8.9    [Go to Top]

As it is in heaven so it will be on earth. yeman svarge aach_e teman-i prrithibii-te hab-be.
yeman saaksiiraa bal-len taman-i ha-y.
As the Bible said in that way we see conditions today.
yeman caa-n teman-i khaa-n

EXERCISE 9.1

Exchange greetings and discuss one's health.

EXERCISE 9.2   [Go to Top]

I must know aamaar jaan-te ha-be.
tomaar aas-te ha-be.
They must listen.
We must speak.
aamaader ye-te ha-be

EXERCISE 9.3   [Go to Top]

I have a hope. aamaar aashaa aach_e.
tomaar samasyaa aache?
They have parents.
taar swaamii aach-e.
He has a wife and a son.
I have no hope.
tomaar-o samasyaa nei?
They have no parents.
taar chelemeye nei.
You have no book?

EXERCISE 9.4    [Go to Top]

I saw a boy aami ek-jan chele dekh-laam.
aami tin-jan bon-ke jaan-_i.
They spoke to five fathers.
Four leaders spoke.
I [did] read a book. aami ek-ti bai par-laam
se dui-taa samasyaa pe-lo.
They saw three fishes.

  [Go to Top]  Date of last edit: 17 February 2007